Design is the process of specifying conditions for learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 30). The domain of design includes four sub-domains of theory and practice: Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Message Design Instructional Strategies Learner Characteristics
Through the ITMA program, I have been able to view my teaching practices with different and enlightened perspectives. I realized that as I began working on my Master’s assignments I transferred my attention to my own classroom and my methods and actions. Without realizing what was occurring on the surface, I began subtle changes to my approach and delivery of my classroom demeanor and daily objectives. In using methods and models that I have used in my Master’s classes, I have modified my classroom into a more efficient and transparent environment where expectations, grading, and communication have moved into the 21st century; and where my students are appreciative of the extra efforts I have provided to our learning environment.
1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
"Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction'"(Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Within the application of this definition, 'design' is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD. (AECT Standards)
This is a project the was produced with the purpose of teaching middle school flute students how to listen to intonation, adjust their flutes and how to operate a chromatic tuner. This project uses the Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model. This model identifies the instructional need, goal statement, learning domains, instructional analysis, target audience, performance and learning contexts, skills, objectives, and assessments, and outlines the instructional content. It also provides a flow chart to aid in following instructional content.
This archive is from an assignment that provides a synthesis of needs, goals, objectives, domains, instructional analysis contexts and assessments. This project used a multimedia as a platform for instruction and used Keller's ARCS model for design. Gagne's Events of Instruction and lastly basing instruction with the Behaviorism theory as a guide. This artifact was my assignment in instruction of 6th grade trumpet players and producing proper and consistent sounds on their mouthpiece.
1.2 Message Design
Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psycho-motor, behavioral, perceptual, effective, constructiveness) in the application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task. (AECT Standards)
In this artifact, I presented images in a lesson that regards placement, importance, perception and relevance as a focus. I developed this assignment as a slide show to instruct students about "How to sight read" music. Preparation and precise planning was important in producing this project since visuals were used to help deliver the message.
1.3 Instructional Strategies
Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective. (AECT Standards)
This is an example of the strategies used for a project for flute students in the middle school band. This is a demonstration of how the objectives, with the learners in mind, are proposed. This archive also provides method and follow-through assessments as well.
This strategy was used for a multimedia project. This is a demonstration of how the objectives, with the learners in mind, are proposed. This archive also provides method of presentation that would best be used and follow-through assessments as well.
1.4 Learner Characteristics
Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner's experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 32). Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation, and the nature of the content. (AECT Standards)
This archived lesson describes the 7th grade learners of the project used to teach intonation. In it you can find the descriptions and evaluations of the students prior to the lesson and learning needs necessary for implementing the project.
This archived example describes building a lesson on sight-reading music. Ideas are described in how to gain attention of the students and how to keep them motivated. The lesson presents potential strategies to present material and to maintain retention.